Oromia Region is one of the regions where PCDP is being implemented. The Region has a total land area of 363,136 square Kilometres and estimated population of about 26,908,340 (population and housing census 1996/97 G.C.). It occupies the largest surface area (34.4%) and the biggest population size (35%) of the country (Oromia Almanac bulletin, 2007). Of this extensive land mass of Oromia, the low land area of the region is occupied by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities having 152,170 square kilometres (PADs, Livestock production and marketing, 2004).
The pastoral and agro-pastoral communities are estimated about more than 4 millions that cover about 12-16% of the region total population. Concerning land mass and livestock resources, the production system covers about 42% and 30% of total landmass and livestock resource of the region, respectively (Oromia Food Security Coordination office, 2001).
The number of animals in the pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of the region is estimated to be 4.6 million Cattle, 0.8 million Sheep, 1.8 million Goats, and 0.8 million Camels.